Rare cases of overdosage up to 600 mg have been reported without bleeding complications or other adverse reactions. Due to limited absorption, a ceiling effect with no further increase in average plasma exposure is expected at supratherapeutic doses of 50 mg rivaroxaban or above.
A specific antidote antagonising the pharmacodynamic effect of rivaroxaban is not available.
The use of activated charcoal to reduce absorption in case of rivaroxaban overdose may be considered.
Management of Bleeding: Should a bleeding complication arise in a patient receiving rivaroxaban, the next rivaroxaban administration should be delayed or treatment should be discontinued as appropriate. Rivaroxaban has a half-life of approximately 5 to 13 hours (see Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions). Management should be individualised according to the severity and location of the haemorrhage. Appropriate symptomatic treatment could be used as needed, such as mechanical compression (e.g. for severe epistaxis), surgical haemostasis with bleeding control procedures, fluid replacement and haemodynamic support, blood products (packed red cells or fresh frozen plasma, depending on associated anaemia or coagulopathy) or platelets.
If bleeding cannot be controlled by the previously mentioned measures, administration of a specific procoagulant reversal agent should be considered, such as prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC) or recombinant factor VIIa (r-FVIIa). However, there is currently very limited clinical experience with the use of these products in individuals receiving rivaroxaban. The recommendation is also based on limited non-clinical data. Re-dosing of recombinant factor VIIa shall be considered and titrated depending on improvement of bleeding. Depending on local availability, a consultation with a coagulation expert should be considered in case of major bleedings (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).
Protamine sulfate and vitamin K are not expected to affect the anticoagulant activity of rivaroxaban.
There is limited experience with tranexamic acid and no experience with aminocaproic acid and aprotinin in individuals receiving rivaroxaban. There is neither scientific rationale for benefit nor experience with the use of the systemic haemostatic desmopressin in individuals receiving rivaroxaban. Due to the high plasma protein binding, rivaroxaban is not expected to be dialysable.