Regular Surveillance: Patients on proton pump inhibitor treatment (particularly those treated for long term) should be kept under regular surveillance.
Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (SCLE): Proton pump inhibitors are associated with very infrequent cases of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE). If lesions occur, especially in sun-exposed areas of the skin, and if accompanied by arthralgia, the patient should seek medical help promptly and the healthcare professional should consider stopping Pantaz 40mg Tablets. SCLE after previous treatment with a proton pump inhibitor may increase the risk of SCLE with other proton pump inhibitors.
Hypomagnesaemia: Severe hypomagnesaemia has been reported in patients treated with PPI like Pantaz 40mg Tablets for at least three months, and in most cases for a year. Serious manifestations of hypomagnesaemia such as fatigue, tetany, delirium, convulsions, dizziness and ventricular arrhythmia can occur but they may begin insidiously and be overlooked. In most affected patients, hypomagnesaemia improved after magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.
For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPI with digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesaemia (e.g., diuretics), healthcare professionals should consider measuring magnesium levels before starting PPI treatment and periodically during treatment.
Fracture: Proton pump inhibitors, especially if used in high doses and over long durations (>1 year), may modestly increase the risk of hip, wrist and spine fracture, predominantly in the elderly or in presence of other recognised risk factors. Observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitors may increase the overall risk of fracture by 10-40%. Some of this increase may be due to other risk factors. Patients at risk of osteoporosis should receive care according to current clinical guidelines and they should have an adequate intake of vitamin D and calcium.
Clostridium difficile Diarrhea: Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve. Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.
Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) caused by hypo- or achlorhydria.
Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed.
Interference with laboratory tests: Increased Chromogranin A (CgA) level may interfere with investigations for neuroendocrine tumours.
If the patient(s) are due to have a test on Chromogranin A level, Pantaz 40mg Tablets treatment should be stopped for at least 5 days before CgA measurements to avoid this interference (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions). If CgA and gastrin levels have not returned to reference range after initial measurement, measurements should be repeated 14 days after cessation of proton pump inhibitor treatment.
HIV protease inhibitors: Co-administration of pantoprazole is not recommended with HIV protease inhibitors for which absorption is dependent on acidic intragastric pH such as atazanavir, nelfinavir; due to significant reduction in their bioavailability.
Methotrexate: Concomitant use with high dose methotrexate may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities.
Gastric malignancy: Symptomatic response to pantoprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy.
Effects on the ability to drive and to use machines: Pantoprazole is not expected to adversely affect the ability to drive or use machines. Adverse drug reactions such as dizziness and visual disturbances may occur. If affected, patients should not drive or operate machines.
Hepatic Impairment: In patients with severe liver impairment, the liver enzymes should be monitored regularly during treatment with pantoprazole, particularly on long-term use. In the case of a rise of the liver enzymes the treatment should be discontinued.
Use in Pregnancy and Lactation: The potential risk for humans is unknown. Pantoprazole should not be used during pregnancy unless clearly necessary.
Excretion into human milk has been reported. Therefore a decision on whether to continue/discontinue breastfeeding or to continue/discontinue therapy with pantoprazole should be made taking into account the benefit of breastfeeding to the child and the benefit of pantoprazole therapy to women.