Use in patients at risk for volume depletion and/or hypotension: Due to its mechanism of action, dapagliflozin increases diuresis which may lead to the modest decrease in blood pressure observed in clinical studies (see Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions). It may be more pronounced in patients with very high blood glucose concentrations.
Caution should be exercised in patients for whom a dapagliflozin-induced drop in blood pressure could pose a risk, such as patients on anti-hypertensive therapy with a history of hypotension or elderly patients.
In case of intercurrent conditions that may lead to volume depletion (e.g. gastrointestinal illness), careful monitoring of volume status (e.g. physical examination, blood pressure measurements, laboratory tests including haematocrit and electrolytes) is recommended. Temporary interruption of treatment with dapagliflozin is recommended for patients who develop volume depletion until the depletion is corrected (see Adverse Reactions).
Diabetic ketoacidosis: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors should be used with caution in patients with increased risk of DKA. Patients who may be at higher risk of DKA include patients with a low beta-cell function reserve (e.g. type 2 diabetes patients with low C-peptide or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) or patients with a history of pancreatitis), patients with conditions that lead to restricted food intake or severe dehydration, patients for whom insulin doses are reduced and patients with increased insulin requirements due to acute medical illness, surgery or alcohol abuse.
The risk of diabetic ketoacidosis must be considered in the event of non-specific symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, excessive thirst, difficulty breathing, confusion, unusual fatigue or sleepiness. Patients should be assessed for ketoacidosis immediately if these symptoms occur, regardless of blood glucose level.
Before initiating dapagliflozin, factors in the patient history that may predispose to ketoacidosis should be considered.
Treatment should be interrupted in patients who are hospitalised for major surgical procedures or acute serious medical illnesses. In both cases, treatment with dapagliflozin may be restarted once the patient's condition has stabilised.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Rare cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), including life-threatening and fatal cases, have been reported in patients treated with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including dapagliflozin. In a number of cases, the presentation of the condition was atypical with only moderately increased blood glucose values, below 14 mmol/L (250 mg/dL).
In patients where DKA is suspected or diagnosed, treatment with dapagliflozin should be discontinued immediately.
Restarting SGLT2 inhibitor treatment in patients experiencing a DKA while on SGLT2 inhibitor treatment is not recommended, unless another clear precipitating factor is identified and resolved.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus: In type 1 diabetes mellitus studies with dapagliflozin, DKA was reported with common frequency. Dapagliflozin should not be used for treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes.
Necrotising fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene): Postmarketing cases of necrotising fasciitis of the perineum, (also known as Fournier's gangrene), have been reported in female and male patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors (see Adverse Reactions). This is a rare but serious and potentially life-threatening event that requires urgent surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.
Patients should be advised to seek medical attention if they experience a combination of symptoms of pain, tenderness, erythema, or swelling in the genital or perineal area, with fever or malaise. Be aware that either urogenital infection or perineal abscess may precede necrotizing fasciitis. If Fournier's gangrene is suspected, Forxiga should be discontinued and prompt treatment (including antibiotics and surgical debridement) should be instituted.
Urinary tract infections: Urinary glucose excretion may be associated with an increased risk of urinary tract infection; therefore, temporary interruption of dapagliflozin should be considered when treating pyelonephritis or urosepsis.
Cardiac failure: Experience with dapagliflozin in NYHA class IV is limited.
Chronic kidney disease: There is no experience with dapagliflozin for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in patients without diabetes who do not have albuminuria. Patients with albuminuria may benefit more from treatment with dapagliflozin.
Lower limb amputations: An increase in cases of lower limb amputation (primarily of the toe) has been observed in long-term, clinical studies in type 2 diabetes mellitus with another SGLT2 inhibitor. It is unknown whether this constitutes a class effect. It is important to counsel patients with diabetes on routine preventative foot care.
Urine laboratory assessments: Due to its mechanism of action, patients taking Forxiga will test positive for glucose in their urine.
Lactose: The tablets contain lactose. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, total lactase deficiency, or glucose-galactose malabsorption should not take this medicinal product.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Forxiga has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. Patients should be alerted to the risk of hypoglycaemia when dapagliflozin is used in combination with a sulphonylurea or insulin.
Renal impairment: Due to limited experience, it is not recommended to initiate treatment with dapagliflozin in patients with GFR < 25 mL/min.
The glucose lowering efficacy of dapagliflozin is dependent on renal function, and is reduced in patients with GFR < 45 ml/min and is likely absent in patients with severe renal impairment (see Dosage & Administration, Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Hepatic impairment: There is limited experience in clinical trials in patients with hepatic impairment. Dapagliflozin exposure is increased in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see Dosage & Administration and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).
Use in the Elderly: Elderly patients may be at a greater risk for volume depletion and are more likely to be treated with diuretics.
Elderly patients are more likely to have impaired renal function, and/or to be treated with anti-hypertensive medicinal products that may cause changes in renal function such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB). The same recommendations for renal function apply to elderly patients as to all patients (see Dosage & Administration, Precautions, Adverse Reactions and Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions).