Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Benzydamine HCl: The mechanism of anti-inflammatory action is not related to stimulation of the pituitary-adrenal axis. Like other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, Benzydamine inhibits the biosynthesis of prostaglandins under certain conditions, but its properties in this aspect have not been fully elucidated. The stabilizing effect on cellular membranes may also be involved in the mechanism of action.
Cetylpyridinium Chloride: Cetylpyridinium Chloride (CPC) is a quarternary pyridinium antiseptic with actions and uses similar to those of other cationic surfactants. It is used chiefly as lozenges or solutions for the treatment of minor infections of the mouth and throat. It is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent with a long history of use to promote gingival health.
As a cationic surfactant, cetylpyridinium chloride dissociate in aqueous solution into a relatively large and complex cation, which is responsible for the surface activity, and a smaller inactive anion. In addition to emulsifying and detergent properties, quaternary ammonium compounds have bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and, at a higher concentration, against some Gram-negative bacteria. They are ineffective against bacterial spores, have variable antifungal activity, and are effective against some viruses.
Quaternary ammonium compounds are most effective in natural or slightly alkaline solution and their bactericidal activity is appreciably reduced in acid media; their activity is enhanced by alcohols. CPC is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent with a long history of use to promote gingival health. It penetrates the cell membrane, causing leakage of cell components, disruption of bacterial metabolism, inhibition of cell growth, and ultimately cell death.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Benzydamine is well absorbed following oral administration. Benzydamine is well absorbed into the inflamed oral mucosa where it exerts anti-inflammatory and local anesthetic actions. Plasma Benzydamine levels following the use of Benzydamine orally are low and parallel to the amount actually ingested.
Excretion: Benzydamine and its metabolites are excreted largely in the urine.
Metabolism is largely by oxidative pathways, although dealkylation can be shown. Most of the absorbed dose was eliminated in the first 24 hours. Repeated administration for 7 days did not result in the accumulation of 7 Benzydamine in plasma.