Hepatic impairment: Telmisartan is mostly eliminated in the bile. Patients with biliary obstructive disorders or hepatic insufficiency can be expected to have reduced clearance.
The half-life of amlodipine is prolonged and AUC values are higher in patients with impaired liver function; dosage recommendations have not been established. Amlodipine should therefore be initiated at the lower end of the dosing range and caution should be used, both on initial treatment and when increasing the dose.
TWYNSTA should therefore be used with caution in these patients.
Renovascular hypertension: There is an increased risk of severe hypotension and renal insufficiency when patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or stenosis of the artery to a single functioning kidney are treated with medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
Renal impairment and kidney transplant: When TWYNSTA is used in patients with impaired renal function, a periodic monitoring of potassium and creatinine serum levels is recommended. There is no experience regarding the administration of TWYNSTA in patients with a recent kidney transplant.
Telmisartan and Amlodipine are not dialyzable.
Intravascular hypovolaemia: Symptomatic hypotension, especially after the first dose, may occur in patients who are volume and/or sodium depleted by e.g. vigorous diuretic therapy, dietary salt restriction, diarrhoea or vomiting. Such conditions should be corrected before the administration of TWYNSTA.
Dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS): There is evidence that the concomitant use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren increases the risk of hypotension, hyperkalaemia and decreased renal function (including acute renal failure). Dual blockade of RAAS through the combined use of ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or aliskiren is therefore not recommended (see Interactions).
If dual blockade therapy is considered absolutely necessary, this should only occur under specialist supervision and subject to frequent close monitoring of renal function, electrolytes and blood pressure.
ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers should not be used concomitantly in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
Other conditions with stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: In patients whose vascular tone and renal function depend predominantly on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g. patients with severe congestive heart failure or underlying renal disease, including renal artery stenosis), treatment with medicinal products that affect this system has been associated with acute hypotension, hyperazotaemia, oliguria, or rarely acute renal failure.
Primary aldosteronism: Patients with primary aldosteronism generally will not respond to antihypertensive medicinal products acting through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, the use of telmisartan is not recommended.
Aortic and mitral valve stenosis, obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: As with other vasodilators, special caution is indicated in patients suffering from aortic or mitral stenosis, or obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction: There are no data to support the use of TWYNSTA in unstable angina pectoris and during or within one month of a myocardial infarction.
Patients with cardiac failure: In an amlodipine long-term, placebo controlled study in patients with severe heart failure (NYHA class III and IV) the reported incidence of pulmonary oedema was higher in the amlodipine treated group than in the placebo group. Therefore, patients with heart failure should be treated with caution.
Calcium channel blockers, including amlodipine, should be used with caution in patients with congestive heart failure, as they may increase the risk of future cardiovascular events and mortality.
Hyperkalaemia: During treatment with medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system hyperkalaemia may occur, especially in the presence of renal impairment and/or heart failure. Monitoring of serum potassium in patients at risk is recommended.
Based on experience with the use of medicinal products that affect the renin-angiotensin system, concomitant use with potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, salt substitutes containing potassium or other medicinal products that may increase the potassium level (heparin, etc.) may lead to an increase in serum potassium and should therefore be co-administered cautiously with telmisartan.
Sorbitol: TWYNSTA tablets 40/5 mg contains 168.64 mg sorbitol in each tablet.
TWYNSTA tablets 80/5 mg contains 337.28 mg in each tablet.
Sorbitol is a source of fructose. TWYNSTA tablets 80/5 mg is not recommended for use in patients with hereditary fructose intolerance.
Diabetes mellitus: In diabetic patients with an additional cardiovascular risk, i.e. patients with diabetes mellitus and coexistent coronary artery disease (CAD), the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and unexpected cardiovascular death may be increased when treated with blood pressure lowering agents such as ARBs or ACE-inhibitors. In patients with diabetes mellitus CAD may be asymptomatic and therefore undiagnosed. Patients with diabetes mellitus should undergo appropriate diagnostic evaluation, e.g. exercise stress testing, to detect and to treat CAD accordingly before initiating treatment with TWYNSTA.
Other: TWYNSTA was effective when treating black patients (usually a low-renin population).
As with any antihypertensive agent, excessive reduction of blood pressure in patients with ischaemic cardiopathy or ischaemic cardiovascular disease could result in a myocardial infarction or stroke.
Effects on ability to drive and use machines: No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, patients should be advised that they may experience undesirable effects such as syncope, somnolence, dizziness, or vertigo during treatment. Therefore, caution should be recommended when driving a car or operating machinery.
If patients experience these adverse experiences, they should avoid potentially hazardous tasks such as driving or operating machinery.
Use in Pregnancy: Angiotensin II receptor antagonists should not be initiated during pregnancy.
Unless continued angiotensin II receptor antagonist therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with angiotensin II receptor antagonists should be stopped immediately, and if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started.
Use in the Elderly: The increase of the amlodipine dosage should take place with care in the elderly patients (see Dosage & Administration and Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions).