For the following disorders, lornoxicam should only be administered after careful risk-benefit assessment: Renal impairment: Lornoxicam should be administered with precaution in patients with mild (serum creatinine 150-300 μmol/l) to moderate (serum creatinine 300 –-700 μmol/l) renal impairment due to dependency on renal prostaglandins for maintenance of renal blood flow. Treatment with lornoxicam should be discontinued if renal function deteriorates during treatment.
Renal functions should be monitored in patients who undergo major surgery, with cardiac failure, receiving treatment with diuretics, receiving concomitant treatment with drugs that are suspected to or known to be able to cause kidney damage.
Patients with blood coagulation disorders: Careful clinical monitoring and laboratory assessment is recommended (e.g. APTT).
Hepatic impairment (e.g. liver cirrhosis): Clinical monitoring and laboratory assessments at regular intervals should be considered in patients with hepatic impairment as accumulation of lornoxicam (increase in AUC) may occur after treatment with daily doses of 12-16 mg. Apart from that, hepatic impairment does not seem to affect pharmacokinetic parameters of lornoxicam as compared to healthy subjects.
Long term treatment (longer than 3 months): Regular laboratory assessments of haematology (haemoglobin), renal functions (creatinine) and liver enzymes are recommended.
Elderly patients above 65 years: Monitoring of renal and hepatic function is recommended. Precaution is advised in elderly postoperative patients.
The use of lornoxicam with concomitant NSAIDs including cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors should be avoided.
Undesirable effects may be minimised by using lowest effective dose for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms (GI and cardiovascular risks as follows)
Gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration and perforation: GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation, which can be fatal, has been reported with all NSAIDs at anytime during treatment, with or without warning symptoms or a previous history of serious GI events.
The risk of GI bleeding, ulceration or perforation is higher with increasing NSAID doses, in patients with a history of ulcer, particularly if complicated with haemorrhage or perforation, and in the elderly. These patients should commence treatment on the lowest dose available. Combination therapy with protective agents (e.g. misoprostol or proton pump inhibitors) should be considered for these patients, and also for patients requiring concomitant low dose acetylsalicylic acid or other active substances likely to increase gastrointestinal risk. Clinical monitoring at regular intervals is recommended.
Patients with a history of GI toxicity, particularly when elderly, should report any unusual abdominal symptoms (especially GI bleeding) particularly in the initial stages of treatment.
Caution should be advised in patients receiving concomitant medicinal products, which could increase the risk of ulceration or bleeding, such as oral corticosteroids, anticoagulants such as warfarin, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors or anti-platelet agents such as acetylsalicylic acid.
When GI bleeding or ulceration occurs in patients receiving lornoxicam, the treatment should be withdrawn.
NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of gastrointestinal disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) as their condition may be exacerbated.
The elderly have an increased frequency of adverse reactions to NSAIDs especially gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation, which may be fatal.
Caution is required in patients with a history of hypertension and/or heart failure, as fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy.
Appropriate monitoring and advice are required for patients with a history of hypertension and/or mild to moderate congestive heart failure, as fluid retention and oedema have been reported in association with NSAID therapy.
Clinical trial and epidemiological data suggest that use of some NSAIDs (particularly at high doses and in long term treatment) may be associated with a small increased risk of arterial thrombotic events (for example myocardial infarction or stroke). There are insufficient data to exclude such a risk for lornoxicam.
Patients with uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure, established ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease should only be treated with Lornoxicam after careful consideration. Similar consideration should be made before initiating longer-term treatment of patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g. hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking).
Concomitant treatment with NSAIDs and heparin in the context of a spinal or epidural anaesthesia increases the risk of spinal/epidural haematoma.
Serious skin reactions, some of them fatal, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis, have been reported very rarely in association with the use of NSAIDs. Patients appear to be at highest risk of these reactions early in the course of therapy, the onset of the reaction occurring in the majority of cases within the first month of treatment. Lornoxicam should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
Caution is required if administered to patients suffering from, or with a previous history of, bronchial asthma since NSAIDs have been reported to precipitate bronchospasm in such patients.
In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disorders there may be an increased risk of aseptic meningitis.
Lornoxicam reduces platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time and consequently care should be taken when administering to patients with increased bleeding tendency.
Concomitant treatment of NSAIDs and tacrolimus may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity owing to reduced synthesis of prostacyclin in the kidney. Renal function must therefore be monitored closely in patients receiving combination therapy.
As with most NSAIDs occasional increase in serum transaminases level, increase in serum bilirubin or other liver function parameters, as well as increases in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen as well as other laboratory abnormalities have been reported. Should any such abnormality prove significant or persist the administration of lornoxicam should be stopped and appropriate investigations prescribed.
The use of lornoxicam, as with any drug known to inhibit cyclooxygenase/prostaglandin synthesis, may impair fertility and is not recommended in women attempting to conceive. In women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility, withdrawal of lornoxicam should be considered.
Exceptionally, varicella can be at the origin of serious cutaneous and soft tissues infectious complications.
To date, the contributing role of NSAIDs in the worsening of these infections cannot be ruled out. Thus, it is advisable to avoid use of lornoxicam in case of varicella.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: Patients showing dizziness and/or sleepiness under treatment with lornoxicam should refrain from driving or operation machinery.