Pharmacodynamic interactions: Diuretics: Empagliflozin may add to the diuretic effect of thiazide and loop diuretics and may increase the risk of dehydration and hypotension (see Precautions).
Insulin and insulin secretagogues: Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulphonylureas, may increase the risk of hypoglycaemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or an insulin secretagogue may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia when used in combination with empagliflozin (see Dosage & Administration and Adverse Reactions).
Interference with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) Assay: Monitoring glycemic control with 1,5-AG assay is not recommended as measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.
Pharmacokinetic interactions: Effects of other medicinal products on empagliflozin: In vitro data suggest that the primary route of metabolism of empagliflozin in humans is glucuronidation by uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferases UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7. Empagliflozin is a substrate of the human uptake transporters OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3, but not OAT1 and OCT2. Empagliflozin is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP).
Co-administration of empagliflozin with probenecid, an inhibitor of UGT enzymes and OAT3, resulted in a 26% increase in peak empagliflozin plasma concentrations (Cmax) and a 53% increase in area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
The effect of UGT induction on empagliflozin has not been studied. Co-medication with known inducers of UGT enzymes should be avoided due to a potential risk of decreased efficacy.
An interaction study with gemfibrozil, an in vitro inhibitor of OAT3 and OATP1B1/1B3 transporters, showed that empagliflozin Cmax increased by 15% and AUC increased by 59% following co- administration. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Inhibition of OATP1B1/1B3 transporters by co-administration with rifampicin resulted in a 75% increase in Cmax and a 35% increase in AUC of empagliflozin. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Empagliflozin exposure was similar with and without co-administration with verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, indicating that inhibition of P-gp does not have any clinically relevant effect on empagliflozin.
Interaction studies conducted in healthy volunteers suggest that the pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin were not influenced by coadministration with metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, linagliptin, warfarin, verapamil, ramipril, simvastatin, torasemide and hydrochlorothiazide.
Effects of empagliflozin on other medicinal products: Based on in vitro studies, empagliflozin does not inhibit, inactivate, or induce CYP450 isoforms. Empagliflozin does not inhibit UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, or UGT2B7. Drug-drug interactions involving the major CYP450 and UGT isoforms with empagliflozin and concomitantly administered substrates of these enzymes are therefore considered unlikely.
Empagliflozin does not inhibit P-gp at therapeutic doses. Based on in vitro studies, empagliflozin is considered unlikely to cause interactions with drugs that are P-gp substrates. Co-administration of digoxin, a P-gp substrate, with empagliflozin resulted in a 6% increase in AUC and 14% increase in Cmax of digoxin. These changes were not considered to be clinically meaningful.
Empagliflozin does not inhibit human uptake transporters such as OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 in vitro at clinically relevant plasma concentrations and, as such, drug-drug interactions with substrates of these uptake transporters are considered unlikely.
Interaction studies conducted in healthy volunteers suggest that empagliflozin had no clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, linagliptin, simvastatin, warfarin, ramipril, digoxin, diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide, torasemide) and oral contraceptives.