Effects on fertility: Dapagliflozin: In a study of fertility in rats, no effects on mating, fertility, or early embryonic development were seen when males received oral doses up to 210 mg/kg/day or when females received oral doses up to 75 mg/kg/day (yielding plasma AUC values at least 1000 times the clinical exposure at the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 10 mg/day). However, at 210 mg/kg/day, a dose associated with profound toxicity (including mortality), seminal vesicle and epididymal weights were reduced; sperm motility and sperm counts were reduced; and there were increased numbers of morphologically abnormal sperm. No adverse effects on sperm or male reproductive organs were seen at 75 mg/kg/day (700 times the clinical exposure at the MRHD).
Use in pregnancy - Category D: There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of XIGDUO XR or its individual components in pregnant women. When pregnancy is detected, treatment with XIGDUO XR should be discontinued.
Dapagliflozin: Studies in rats have shown toxicity to the developing kidney in the time period corresponding to the second and third trimesters of human pregnancy (see Precautions). Therefore, dapagliflozin must not be used during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.
In conventional studies of embryofoetal development in rats and rabbits, dapagliflozin was administered for intervals coinciding with the period of organogenesis in humans. An increased incidence of embryofoetal lethality, decreased foetal weight and an increased incidence of foetal visceral and skeletal anomalies were seen in rats at maternotoxic doses (oral doses greater than or equal to 150 mg/kg/day). The no observed effect level for embryofoetal effects in rats was an oral dose of 75 mg/kg/day (1530 times the exposure in patients at the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD]). No developmental toxicities were observed in rabbits at oral doses up to 180 mg/kg/day (1265 times the exposure in patients at the MRHD).
Metformin hydrochloride: Metformin was not teratogenic in rats and rabbits at doses up to 600 mg/kg/day. This represents an exposure of about 3 and 6 times the maximum recommended human daily dose of 2000 mg based on body surface area comparisons for rats and rabbits, respectively. Determination of foetal concentrations demonstrated a partial placental barrier to metformin.
Use in lactation: XIGDUO XR must not be used by breastfeeding women.
No studies in lactating animals have been conducted with the combined components of XIGDUO XR. In studies performed with the individual components, both dapagliflozin and metformin are excreted in the milk of lactating rats.
Studies in rats have shown excretion of dapagliflozin in milk. Direct and indirect exposure of dapagliflozin to weanling juvenile rats and during late pregnancy are each associated with increased incidence and/or severity of renal pelvic and tubular dilatations in progeny. The long-term functional consequences of these effects are unknown. These periods of exposure coincide with a critical window of renal maturation in rats. As functional maturation of the kidneys in humans continues in the first 2 years of life, dapagliflozin-associated dilated renal pelvis and tubules noted in juvenile rats could constitute potential risk for human renal maturation during the first 2 years of life. Additionally, the negative effects on body weight gain associated with lactational exposure in weanling juvenile rats suggest that dapagliflozin must be avoided during the first 2 years of life.
It is not known whether dapagliflozin or metformin are secreted in human milk.