Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics: Adapalene is a chemically stable retinoid-like compound. Its biochemical and pharmacological profile has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Profile studies have demonstrated that adapalene is a modulator of cellular differentiation, keratinisation and inflammatory processes all of which represent important features in the pathology of acne vulgaris. Mechanistically, adapalene binds to specific retinoic acid nuclear receptors but does not bind to cytosolic receptor protein. Although the exact mode of action of adapalene is unknown, current evidence suggests that topical adapalene normalises the differentiation of follicular epithelial cells resulting in decreased microcomedone formation.
Pharmacokinetics: Absorption of adapalene through human skin is low. Only trace amounts (< 0.25 ng/ml) of parent substance have been found in the plasma of acne patients following chronic topical application of adapalene in controlled clinical trials. Excretion appears to be primarily by the biliary route.