Fertility: Methotrexate has been reported to cause impairment of fertility, oligospermia and menstrual dysfunction in humans, during and for a short period after cessation of therapy.
Pregnancy: Methotrexate can cause fetal death, embryotoxicity, abortion, or teratogenic effects when administered to a pregnant woman. Methotrexate is contraindicated in pregnant patients with psoriasis or rheumatoid arthritis.
Women of childbearing potential should not be started on methotrexate until pregnancy is excluded and should be fully counseled on the serious risk to the fetus should they become pregnant while undergoing treatment. Pregnancy should be avoided if either partner is receiving methotrexate.
The optimal time interval between the cessation of methotrexate treatment of either partner and pregnancy has not been clearly established. Published literature recommendations for time intervals vary from 3 months to one year.
The risk of effects on reproduction should be discussed with both male and female patients taking methotrexate.
Lactation: Methotrexate has been detected in human breast milk and is contraindicated during breast feeding.