Hydrocortison Orion

Hydrocortison Orion Mechanism of Action

hydrocortisone

Manufacturer:

Orion Pharma

Distributor:

Apex
Full Prescribing Info
Action
Properties: Hydrocortisone or cortisol is a natural glucocorticoid with a mild mineralocorticoid action elaborated by the human adrenal cortex, normally 15-40 mg/day. Like other glucocorticoids, it acts by binding to steroid receptors in the cytoplasm. Its effects are to a great extent mediated through lipocortin synthesis.
Glucocorticoids act catabolically especially in the muscle tissue. They reduce the production of lymphokines and eicosanoids, decrease the quantity of lymphatic tissue, and have an immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effect irrespective of the cause of inflammation. They also reduce fibroblast activity and scar formation. Glucocorticoids reduce the secretion of corticotrophin and depress the pituitary-adrenal axis.
Hydrocortisone has a slight mineralocorticoid effect. After a single dose of 250 mg of hydrocortisone, the secretion of corticotrophin is inhibited for about 24-36 hours.
Hydrocortisone may be used with mineralocorticoids as specific treatment for adrenocortical insufficiency. If the adrenocortical insufficiency is of pituitary or hypothalamic origin, hydrocortisone alone should be sufficient. It may be used also for unspecific anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic treatment.
Hydrocortisone is absorbed rapidly and completely from the alimentary tract. Because of first-pass metabolism, its bioavailability varies between 25 % and 90 %. In plasma, the peak concentration of hydrocortisone is reached in 1-2 hours after dosing. It is bound to plasma transcortin and albumin. At low concentrations, 10% of hydrocortisone is free; at higher concentrations, the binding capacity of transcortin is saturated and the proportion of free drug can increase to 40-50%. Its volume of distribution is 0.4-0.7 l/kg. The pharmacologic half-life of hydrocortisone averages 1.5 hours, but the half-life of the biological effect is considerably longer, approx. 10 hours. Hydrocortisone penetrates the placenta and is excreted in small amounts in breast milk. The elimination of hydrocortisone may be prolonged in liver diseases and shortened in thyrotoxicosis.
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