Oral Bone and joint infections, Dental infections, Genitourinary infections, Respiratory tract infections, Skin and soft tissue infections
Adult: Dose range: 1,000-4,000 mg daily in divided doses. Usual dose: 250 mg 6 hourly or 500 mg 12 hourly; higher doses may be given in more severe infections or those caused by less susceptible organisms. Treatment duration: 7-14 days depending on the type and severity of infection. Dosage or treatment recommendations may vary among countries and individual products. Refer to specific product guidelines. Child: Usual dose: 25-50 mg/kg daily in divided doses. Severe infections: 50-100 mg/kg daily in divided doses. Treatment duration: 7-14 days depending on the type and severity of infection (≥10 days for β-haemolytic streptococcal infections). Dosage or treatment recommendations may vary among countries and individual products. Refer to specific product guidelines.
Oral Otitis media
Child: 75-100 mg/kg daily in 4 divided doses.
Dosage adjustment may be required. Recommendations may vary among countries and individual products. Refer to specific product guidelines.
May be taken with or without food. May be taken w/ meals to reduce GI discomfort.
Powder for oral susp: Reconstitute with an appropriate amount of water as specified on the container or bottle. Shake vigorously until suspended.
Hypersensitivity to cefalexin and other cephalosporins.
Patient with history of penicillin allergy, history of gastrointestinal disease (particularly colitis), poor nutritional state, history of seizure disorder. Renal and hepatic impairment. Children. Pregnancy and lactation.
Significant: Acute intravascular haemolysis, prolonged prothrombin time; overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms (prolonged use), increased risk of seizures (high dose, particularly in patients with renal impairment). Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Eosinophilia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia. Gastrointestinal disorders: Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, gastritis, anal pruritus. Rarely, nausea, vomiting. General disorders and administration site conditions: Fatigue, fever. Hepatobiliary disorders: Rarely, transient hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions (e.g. rash, urticaria). Investigations: Slight elevations in AST and ALT. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Arthralgia, arthritis, joint disorder, hypertonia. Nervous system disorders: Dizziness, headache. Psychiatric disorders: Agitation, confusion, hallucinations, nervousness, restlessness, sleep disturbance, hyperactivity. Renal and urinary disorders: Reversible interstitial nephritis. Reproductive system and breast disorders: Genital pruritus, genital candidiasis, vaginitis, vaginal discharge. Potentially Fatal: Serious hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis and severe cutaneous adverse reactions (e.g. Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms); Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), pseudomembranous colitis.
Perform culture and susceptibility tests; consult local institutional recommendations before treatment initiation due to antibiotic resistance risks. Monitor renal, hepatic, and haematologic functions periodically (prolonged therapy); signs of anaphylaxis during 1st dose.
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, diarrhoea, haematuria. Management: General supportive treatment. Close clinical and laboratory monitoring of haematological, renal, and hepatic functions and coagulation status is recommended until the patient is stable.
Reduced excretion with probenecid. Increased risk of nephrotoxicity with amphotericin B, loop diuretics, aminoglycosides, or vancomycin. Concomitant use with oral anticoagulants may prolong prothrombin time. May reduce the effects of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives. May increase metformin plasma concentrations.
May result in positive direct Coombs' tests. May cause a false-positive reaction when testing for the presence of glucose in the urine using Benedict's or Fehling's solutions or with copper sulfate test tablets; false-positive serum or urine creatinine with Jaffe reaction; false-positive urinary proteins and steroids.
Description: Mechanism of Action: Cefalexin, a 1st generation oral cephalosporin, binds to 1 or more of the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) which in turn blocks the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell wall, thus inhibiting its biosynthesis and arresting cell wall assembly resulting in bacterial lysis.
Synonym: cephalexin. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: Rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Time to peak plasma concentration: Approx 1 hour. Distribution: Widely distributed into body tissues, including bone, joints, and the pericardial and pleural cavities. Crosses the placenta; enters breast milk (small amounts). Plasma protein binding: Approx 10-15%. Metabolism: Not metabolised. Excretion: Via urine (>90% as unchanged drug). Elimination half-life: Approx 60 minutes.
Store between 20-25°C. Protect from light. Reconstituted oral susp: Store between 2-8°C.
J01DB01 - cefalexin ; Belongs to the class of first-generation cephalosporins. Used in the systemic treatment of infections.
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