Bleeding risk: The use of ticagrelor in patients at known increased risk for bleeding should be balanced against the benefit in terms of prevention of atherothrombotic events (see "Adverse Reactions" and "Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions").
If clinically indicated, ticagrelor should be used with caution in the following patient groups: Patients with a propensity to bleed (e.g. due to recent trauma, recent surgery, coagulation disorders, active or recent gastrointestinal bleeding), or who are at increased risk of trauma. The use of ticagrelor is contraindicated in patients with active pathological bleeding, in those with a history of intracranial haemorrhage, and in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see "Contraindications").
Patients with concomitant administration of medicinal products that may increase the risk of bleeding (e.g. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral anticoagulants and/or fibrinolytics) within 24 hours of ticagrelor dosing.
Platelet transfusion did not reverse the antiplatelet effect of ticagrelor in healthy volunteers and is unlikely to be of clinical benefit in patients with bleeding. Since co-administration of ticagrelor with desmopressin did not decrease template-bleeding time, desmopressin is unlikely to be effective in managing clinical bleeding events (see "Interactions").
Antifibrinolytic therapy (aminocaproic acid or tranexamic acid) and/or recombinant factor VIIa therapy may increase haemostasis. Ticagrelor may be resumed after the cause of bleeding has been identified and controlled.
60 mg: The treating physician should regularly reassess whether treatment with ticagrelor remains appropriate, particularly if there is a change in the factors associated with an increased risk of bleeding.
90 mg: Patients treated for acute ischemic stroke or TIA: Patients at NIHSS >5 and patients receiving thrombolysis were excluded from THALES and use of BRILINTA in such patients is not recommended.
Surgery: Patients should be advised to inform physicians and dentists that they are taking ticagrelor before any surgery is scheduled and before any new medicinal product is taken.
In PLATO patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), ticagrelor had more bleeding than clopidogrel when stopped within 1 day prior to surgery but a similar rate of major bleeds compared to clopidogrel after stopping therapy 2 or more days before surgery (see "Adverse Reactions"). If a patient is to undergo elective surgery and antiplatelet effect is not desired, ticagrelor should be discontinued 5 days prior to surgery (see "Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions").
Patients with prior ischaemic stroke: Therefore, in the absence of data, treatment beyond one year is not recommended in these patients.
60 mg: In PEGASUS (history of MI ≥ one year) and THEMIS (CAD and type 2 DM) trials, patients with prior ischaemic stroke were not included.
Treatment in patients with CAD, type 2 DM and prior ischaemic stroke is also not recommended.
90 mg: ACS patients with prior ischaemic stroke can be treated with ticagrelor for up to 12 months (PLATO study).
In PEGASUS, patients with history of MI with prior ischaemic stroke were not included.
Patients at risk for bradycardic events: Holter ECG monitoring has shown an increased frequency of mostly asymptomatic ventricular pauses during treatment with ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel. Patients with an increased risk of bradycardic events (e.g. patients without a pacemaker who have sick sinus syndrome, 2nd or 3rd degree atrioventricular (AV) block or bradycardic-related syncope) have been excluded from the main studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor as they may be at increased risk of developing bradyarrhythmias with ticagrelor. Therefore, due to the limited clinical experience, ticagrelor should be used with caution in these patients (see "Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions").
Bradyarrhythmic events, including 2nd and 3rd degree AV block, have however been reported in the post-marketing setting in patients with or without history of bradyarrhythmia, in most cases, shortly after initiation of treatment with ticagrelor. Therefore, ticagrelor should be used with caution and these patients should be closely monitored during the first few weeks on treatment.
In addition, caution should be exercised when administering ticagrelor concomitantly with medicinal products known to induce bradycardia.
During the Holter substudy in PLATO, more patients had ventricular pauses ≥3 seconds with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel during the acute phase of their ACS. The increase in Holter-detected ventricular pauses with ticagrelor was higher in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) than in the overall study population during the acute phase of ACS, but not at one month with ticagrelor or compared to clopidogrel. There were no adverse clinical consequences associated with this imbalance (including syncope or pacemaker insertion) in this patient population (see "Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions").
60 mg: However, no evidence of clinically significant adverse reactions was observed in the PLATO and the PEGASUS trials during concomitant administration with one or more medicinal products known to induce bradycardia (e.g. 96% beta-blockers, 33% calcium channel blockers diltiazem and verapamil, and 4% digoxin). In THEMIS, 73.8% of patients took beta-blocker at study-entry (see "Interactions").
90 mg: However, no evidence of clinically significant adverse reactions was observed in the PLATO trial after concomitant administration with one or more medicinal products known to induce bradycardia (e.g., 96% beta-blockers, 33% calcium channel blockers diltiazem and verapamil, and 4% digoxin) (see "Interactions").
Dyspnoea: Dyspnoea was reported in patients treated with ticagrelor. Dyspnoea is usually mild to moderate in intensity and often resolves without need for treatment discontinuation. Patients with asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may have an increased absolute risk of experiencing dyspnoea with ticagrelor. Ticagrelor should be used with caution in patients with history of asthma and/or COPD. The mechanism has not been elucidated. If a patient reports new, prolonged or worsened dyspnoea this should be investigated fully and if not tolerated, treatment with ticagrelor should be stopped. For further details, see "Adverse Reactions".
Central sleep apnoea: Central sleep apnoea including Cheyne-Stokes respiration has been reported in the post-marketing setting in patients taking ticagrelor. If central sleep apnoea is suspected, further clinical assessment should be considered.
Creatinine elevations: Creatinine levels may increase during treatment with ticagrelor. The mechanism has not been elucidated. Renal function should be checked according to routine medical practice. In patients with ACS, it is recommended that renal function is also checked one month after initiating the treatment with ticagrelor, paying special attention to patients ≥75 years, patients with moderate/severe renal impairment and those receiving concomitant treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB).
Uric acid increase: Hyperuricaemia may occur during treatment with ticagrelor (see "Adverse Reactions"). Caution is advised in patients with history of hyperuricaemia or gouty arthritis. As a precautionary measure, the use of ticagrelor in patients with uric acid nephropathy is discouraged.
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP): Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) has been reported very rarely with the use of ticagrelor. It is characterised by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia associated with either neurological findings, renal dysfunction or fever. TTP is a potentially fatal condition requiring prompt treatment including plasmapheresis.
Interference with platelet function tests to diagnose heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT): In the heparin induced platelet activation (HIPA) test used to diagnose HIT, anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in patient serum activate platelets of healthy donors in the presence of heparin. False negative results in a platelet function test (to include, but may not be limited to the HIPA test) for HIT have been reported in patients administered ticagrelor. This is related to inhibition of the P2Y12-receptor on the healthy donor platelets in the test by ticagrelor in the patient's sera/plasma. Information on concomitant treatment with ticagrelor is required for interpretation of HIT platelet function tests.
In patients who have developed HIT, the benefit-risk of continued treatment with ticagrelor should be assessed, taking both the prothrombotic state of HIT and the increased risk of bleeding with concomitant anticoagulant and ticagrelor treatment into consideration.
Other: Based on a relationship observed in PLATO between maintenance ASA dose and relative efficacy of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel, co-administration of ticagrelor and high maintenance dose ASA (>300 mg) is not recommended (see "Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions").
60 mg: Benefit-risk in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM): In the THEMIS trial, a positive benefit-risk profile was observed in the pre-specified subgroup of patients who have a history of percutaneous intervention (PCI), representing 58% of the overall THEMIS trial population. In the full THEMIS population, the benefit-risk profile was not considered favourable to support use of ticagrelor. Before initiating treatment in patients with CAD, type-2 diabetes and a history of PCI, it should be confirmed that a patient is at high risk of atherothrombotic events and low risk of bleeding (see "Indications/Uses", "Adverse Reactions" and "Pharmacology: Pharmacodynamics under Actions").
Premature discontinuation: Premature discontinuation with any antiplatelet therapy, including Brilinta, could result in an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) death, MI or stroke due to the patient's underlying disease. Therefore, premature discontinuation of treatment should be avoided.
Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machines: Ticagrelor has no or negligible influence on the ability to drive and use machines. During treatment with ticagrelor, dizziness and confusion have been reported. Therefore, patients who experience these symptoms should be cautious while driving or using machines.
Hepatic impairment: Use of ticagrelor is contraindicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (see "Dosage & Administration" and "Contraindications"). There is limited experience with ticagrelor in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, therefore, caution is advised in these patients (see "Dosage & Administration" and "Pharmacology: Pharmacokinetics under Actions").