Chelation Complex Formulation: The simultaneous administration of ciprofloxacin (oral) and multivalent cation-containing drugs and mineral supplements (e.g. calcium, magnesium, aluminium, iron), polymeric phosphate binders (e.g. sevelamer), sucralfate or antacids and highly buffered drugs (e.g. didanosine tablets), containing magnesium, aluminium or calcium reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Consequently, ciprofloxacin should be administered either 1-2 hours before or at least 4 hours after these preparations. The restriction does not apply to antacids belonging to the class of H2 receptors blockers.
Food and Dairy Products: The concurrent administration of dairy products or mineral fortified drinks alone (e.g. milk, yoghurt, calcium fortified orange juice) and ciprofloxacin should be avoided because absorption of ciprofloxacin may be reduced. Dietary calcium as part of a meal, however, does not significantly affect absorption.
Omeprazole: Concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin and omeprazole results in a slight reduction of Cmax and AUC of ciprofloxacin.
Theophylline: Concurrent administration of ciprofloxacin and theophylline can cause an undesirable increase in the serum theophylline concentration. This can lead to theophylline-induced side effects in very rare cases these side effects can be life threatening or fatal. If concurrent use of the two products is unavoidable, the serum theophylline concentration should therefore be checked and theophylline dose appropriately reduced.
NSAIDs: Animal studies have shown that the combination of very high doses of quinolones (gyrase inhibitors) and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (but not acetylsalicylic acid) can provoke convulsions.
Cyclosporin: A transient rise in the concentration of serum creatinine was observed when ciprofloxacin and cyclosporine were administered simultaneously. Therefore, it is necessary to control the serum creatinine concentrations in these patients frequently (twice a week).
Warfarin: The simultaneous administration of ciprofloxacin and warfarin may intensify the action of warfarin.
Glibenclamide: In particular cases, concurrent administration of ciprofloxacin and glibenclamide can intensify the action of glibenclamide (hypoglycaemia).
Probenecid: Probenecid interferes with renal secretion. Co-administration of probenecid and ciprofloxacin increases the ciprofloxacin serum concentrations.
Methotrexate: Renal tubular transport of methotrexate may be inhibited by concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin potentially leading to increased plasma levels of methotrexate. This might increase the risk of methotrexate associated toxic reactions, therefore the concomitant use is not recommended.
Metoclopramide: Metoclopramide accelerates the absorption of ciprofloxacin (oral) resulting in a shorter time to reach maximum plasma concentrations. No effect was seen on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin.
Tizanidine: In a clinical study in healthy subjects there was an increase in tizanidine serum concentrations (Cmax increase: 7-fold, range: 4 to 21-fold; AUC increase: 10-fold, range: 6 to 24-fold) when given concomitantly with ciprofloxacin. Associated with the increased serum concentrations was a potentiated hypotensive and sedative effects. Tizanidine must not be administered together with ciprofloxacin.
Duloxetine: In clinical studies it was demonstrated that the concomitant use of duloxetine with strong inhibitors of the CYP450 1A2 isoeyme such as fluvoxamine, may result in an increase of AUC and Cmax of duloxetine. Although no clinical data are available on a possible interaction with ciprofloxacin, similar effects can be expected upon concomitant administration.
Ropinirole: In a clinical study it was shown that concomitant use of ropinirole with ciprofloxacin, a medium inhibitor of the CYP450 1A2 isozyme, resulted in increases in the Cmax and AUC of ropinirole of 60 and 84% respectively. Although ropinirole treatment was well tolerated, case reports that a possible interaction with ciprofloxacin associated with side effects may occur upon concomitant administration.
Lidocaine: It was demonstrated in healthy subjects that concomitant use of lidocaine with ciprofloxacin, a moderate inhibitor of CYP450 1A2 isoeyme, reduces clearance of intravenous lidocaine by 22%. Although lidocaine treatment was well tolerated, a possible interaction with ciprofloxacin associated with side effects may occur upon concomitant administration.
Clozapine: Following concomitant administration of 250mg Ciprofloxacin for 7 days, serum concentration of clozapine and N-desmethylclozapnie were increased by 29% and 31%, respectively.